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Every national discipline such as the habit of standing in line (queue) is institutionalised in each nation.

In these modern days Indians have still not learnt the habit of standing in lines. Self-discipline and national discipline are on different planes. Marriage is an institution in any country, even though formal aspects of organisation such as registering, recording are present for national purposes and only incidentally serve the individual. In speaking of institutions as distinct from organisations, we need to keep in mind that these institutions and organisations arise at all levels, e.g. national, sectoral, community, caste, local neighbourhood, family, personal, industry, as well as in all fields, e.g. such as political parties, trade unions, universities, etc. As there is a gradation of size (quantity), there is also a gradation of value (quality). They can be subdivided as well-established, formative, unformed, etc. The term value and institution, custom and culture will find themselves stumbling upon several hurdles of language. Unless and until the field codifies these terms, we have to be satisfied with the spirit of these phenomena.

  • Hospitality is a value institutionalised in any nation.
  • Tax collection is an organisation.
  • Sunday sermons at the church can be understood as the organised surface of the institutionalised religion.
  • Family tradition is an institutionalised value.
  • Punctuality, though enforced by organisations, is an institutionalised value.
  • Honour is more a value than a custom. It cannot even be institutionalised in the sense it is more a personal value than a national custom.
  • Bargaining is a commercial value that pervades all walks of life in India. In the West, it is non-existent in retail. Westerners compensate for this by demanding the rock bottom price whenever there is a buyers’ market for a product.
  • Rational thinking is there all over the West as an institutionalised mental value.
  • Perjury in the courts is non-existent in the West as the punishment is heavy. In India not only the witnesses but the lawyers and sometime judges do not stick to truth. Perjury is as much institutionalised in India as corruption.
  • Etiquette was institutionalised in the royal courts in the early centuries.
  • Gallantry was another institutionalised value in the West in previous centuries.