Human Science

Project Outline

The objective is to get the statistical figures that explain the growth of international trade from 1750 to 1850 or 1900. Main interest is in figures of Britain and secondly for USA

Research Information

Overseas Trade in Britain – 1700 to 1800

The Patterns of British Overseas Trades.jpg

English Foreign Trade 18th C.jpg

Exports and Industrial Output.jpg

Destination of English Exports.jpg


Overseas Trade in USA - 1700 to 1850

Overseas Trade in USA - 1700 to 1850.jpg


International Transactions.jpg

Source: (pg 29)

Related Information


World Manufacturing Output.jpg
Lvevel of Industrialization.jpg



France and Britain since 1700.jpg


3. British Trade balance in wheat:

Source : missed the source link , but I have the downloaded file.

4. Figure (below) 2.1 shows the price of English-produced nonfarm items relative to the price of farm output, and the price of English exports relative to imports. Export prices declined even more relative to import prices.

Form and Non-farm Output.jpg


5. British Export. Trend Growth Rates obtained using HPF

British Exports.jpg


6. Key Economic Events in Britain From 1700 to 1801

Date Event
1700 Exports as %age of national output - 8.4%. Agriculture output (1815 prices) - £40 million.
1706 Act of Bankruptcy passed.
1707 Union of Scotland and England.
1708 English banks limited to small-scale partnerships.
1714 Accession of George I.
1717 Britain switches to Gold Standard.
1720 Note issue by Bank of England exceeds total of all goldsmith bankers Bubble Act.
1721 – 1723 South Sea Bubble Affair - unimportant in itself, the speculation involved in this Bubble is important for the long-lasting hostility it evoked towards the dealing in shares of companies.
1732 Act of Bankruptcy made permanent.
1734 Barnards Act prohibits dealings in options and forward contracts by stockbrokers on the London exchange.
1736 – 1799 125 Municipal Improvement Acts passed.
1750 Manufactures as % of exports - 75.4%. Agricultural Output (1815 prices) - £59 million.
1751 Creation of Three Percent Consols.
1752 Adoption of Gregorian Calendar.
1760 Exports as a %age GNP - 14.6%. Accession of George III.
1765 American Stamp Act (repealed 1766).
1770s Canal links between major rivers begin to be established.
1772 Over 500 turnpike trusts established - turnpikes were monopolies granted by parliament for the running of private highways.
1776 United Stated of America declares Independence.
1780 Exports as a %age GNP - 9.4%.
1780 – 1787 Number of cotton mills increases eightfold.
1783 Recognition of American Independence.
1784 East India Company establishes Board of Control.
1789 – 1815 French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
1790s Number of hours to spin 100lb of cotton falls to 300. Approximately 2500 steam engines in use. Development of gas lighting.
1795 Speenhamland system of Poor Relief introduced - part of the Poor Law introduced in 1790s. Not important in itself, but has come to be recognised as generous system of Poor Relief.
1796 Introduction of Smallpox Vaccine.
1797 Britain leaves Gold Standard
1798 Introduction of Income tax. Malthus' Essay on Population published.
1799 – 1800 Combination Acts suppressing Trade Unions.
1800s Average family income (1801-03) - £92. Agricultural Output in 1800 (1815 prices) - £88 million. Exports as a %age of GNP in 1801 - 15.7%. Manufactures as a %age of exports in 1800 - 87.2%.
1801 Union with Ireland. First Census of population.